No. Project Directors and grantees do not need to be Africa. However… JRS aims to support the development of capacity for biodiversity data and information systems in Africa for conservation and sustainable development. We believe that doing so requires that skills, responsibility, and authority must ultimately reside in Africa, for Africa, by Africans. Most of our projects do involve U.S. and European collaborators. We will look carefully at project designs to see how African institutions and individuals play significant roles from the onset of the project. Our experience is that projects fully-centered outside of Africa that promise transfer of know-how to African institutions in the final phases of the project, rarely establish sustainable efforts. We also look at the flow of funds to see funding appears to reflect statements about partnerships and roles. We also ensure that primary authority and responsibility lies with the grant recipient so that as the project meets challenges and opportunities, funds can be reallocated as needed for greatest impact.